Andrew J. Nathan
The government has refused dialogue with its citizens ever since.
How Human Rights Became our Ideology
November 16, 2012
The modern idea of human rights was only created after World War II. In the next half-century, it became a global movement.
The Partial Reformer
February 22, 2012
Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of ChinaBy Ezra F. Vogel (Belknap Press, 876 pp., $39.95) Revolutionaries get all the attention, but reform is much harder. A reformer has to reshape a rigid structure without breaking it. Before Deng Xiaoping, only Kemal Atatürk in the twentieth century managed to do this. Others, like Nasser and the Shah of Iran, left key parts of the old system intact, or, like Gorbachev, destroyed the regime in trying to save it. The China that Deng inherited from Mao Zedong was just such a brittle system.