Christopher Caldwell

When Evil Was a Social System

The moral burdens of living under communist rule in Eastern Europe

Anne Applebaum and Marci Shore have shown that there is much to know about communism in this century that was not obvious to everyone. Both regard Soviet communism as more intertwined with the history of Nazism than most historians did before the fall of the Berlin Wall.

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Europe’s Angry Muslims: The Revolt of the Second Generation By Robert S. Leiken (Oxford University Press, 354 pp., $27.95)  After the Fall: The End of the European Dream and the Decline of a Continent By Walter Laqueur (Thomas Dunne Books, 322 pp., $26.99)  In two separate incidents in March, Mohammed Merah, a French-born French citizen who thought he was waging jihad, ambushed four soldiers around Toulouse, killing three of them. A week later, he shot dead three children arriving for morning classes at a nearby Jewish school, along with a young rabbi who was father to two of them.

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Alarms

In the divisive, decade-old War on Terror, one certitude unites the warriors and the conscientious objectors. It is that Islamism is not to be confuse

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In Search of Lost Meaning, a mixed bag of Adam Michnik’s recent essays, describes a permanent war, carried on across centuries, between the astonishin

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